Austin was found to have Marfan syndrome, a disorder that affects the body's connective tissue.
Baylor coach Scott Drew said Sunday in a news release that the discovery means Austin will not be able to play basketball again.
Austin, 7-foot-1, averaged 12.1 points and 6.9 rebounds this season.
According to the Mayo Clinic, complications from Marfan syndrome can weaken the aorta, the artery that supplies blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Drew says he hopes Austin will return to school and finish his degree.